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Open Business @ Peru is a project of the "Cultura Libre" group (The Peruvian Chapter). The group is member of the E-quipu program at Pontificia Universidad Catolica del Peru.


  • We are constantly being told that we live in a competitive world in which innovation is the main driver towards growth and prosperity. What is the place in such a world for fundamental science, whose short-term contribution to society is knowledge without any immediate application? Is it an unnecessary luxury? Should the world be deploying its resources in pursuit of more pressing needs: public health, clean energy, safe water? Of course it should, and I believe that investment in fundamental science serves these goals. It is a long-term investment, laying the foundations for future innovation and prosperity.
    • Robert Aymar is director-general of CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Geneva, Switzerland.
  • In the final analysis, creation, mastery, and utilization of modern science and technology [are] basically what distinguishes the South from North. On science and technology depend the standards of living of a nation.
    • Abdus Salam, the Nobel prize-winning physicist from Pakistan.


Open Business @ Peru is a project about Small Tech Business.

  • This wiki is for general references.
  • A booklet (in spanish) will be soon and licenced under Creative Commons Peru.
  • The report is a guide for entrepreneurs interested in technology based business.
  • Focus on:
    • Appropriate Technology
    • Assistive Technology
    • Rural Telecommunications
    • Grid Computing
    • Biotechnology, Nanotechnology & Biomimetics
    • Electronics, Photonics & New Materials
    • Health
    • Renewable Energy
    • Social Responsibility
    • MicroFinances
  • Government Initiatives

Legal Guide

  • PERU LEGAL GUIDE, Estudio Olaechea, 2005.
    • The information contained herein has been updated until April 15thh, 2005 and does not constitute legal advice. The services of a professional should be sought, if legal advice is required.
  • Doing Business and Investing in Peru, PWC, 2003.
    • This Guide has been prepared for the assistance of those interested in doing business in Peru. It does not cover exhaustively the subjects it treats but is intended to answer some of the important, broad questions that may arise. When specific problems occur in practice, it will often be necessary to refer to the laws, regulations and decisions of the country and to obtain appropriate accounting and legal advice. The material contained in this Guide was assembled at January 1, 2003. Unless otherwise indicated, it is based on information available at that time.
    • This Guide is one of a series on business conditions in the countries in which PricewaterhouseCoopers firms have offices or carry out work, and is based on the latest available information from these offices. The Guide series is published by PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP.
  • Highlights Perú, PWC, 2005.
    • 2005 has been a very dynamic year for the Peruvian economy. As in the previous year, the economy grew significantly in 2005 within a context of the expansion of Latin America. Although certain social instability is still present in the country, investment has successfully increased during last year. The worldwide economy also favored our development in commerce and trade.
  • How to Setup a Company in Peru, PROINVERSION.
    • This booklet includes general guidelines to set up a company in Peru. The main procedures are also herein indicated. Foreign investors and/or companies shall decide if they will operate either through new companies, branches or joint ventures. Peruvian Legislation recognizes various entrepreneurial forms, such as: incorporation, limited liability company, general partnership, noncommercial limited company, limited partnership issuing shares, partnerships, consortia and branches. Corporation and Branches of foreign companies are the most common forms used in Peru, because of the advantages they grant.

No-profit Organizations

Small Business

Information and Communication Technologies


  • Peru grants patents for inventions of products or procedures in all fields of technology, provided that they are new, have an inventive level and are subject to industrial application. Some exclusions for registration are applicable.
  • Must be registered before the competent authority The Patent Office at National Institute for the Defense of Competition and Protection of Intellectual Property (INDECOPI).
  • Patent protection lasts for 20 years from the application filing date. For utility models, the protection term is 10 years.
  • A patent is not renewable. Following the 20-year term, it belongs to the public domain.
  • A patent holder may grant licenses for its use only by written contract. The procedure for registering the licenses is similar to the registration of a patent.


  • Copyright protection covers all inventive works in literary or artistic fields, whatever their genre, form of expression, value or purpose. Works eligible for protection include computer programs, journalistic articles, literary works and any intellectual production with original characteristics and subject to be disclosed or reproduced. On the fact of creation alone, the author is entitled to an exclusive right on his work, opposable to third parties, consisting of both moral and property rights.
  • Must be registered before the competent authority The Copyright Office at National Institute for the Defense of Competition and Protection of Intellectual Property (INDECOPI).
  • Copyright protection lasts for the author s lifetime plus 70 years after his or her death, regardless of the work s country of origin. For co-authored works, protection lasts for the co-authors lifetimes plus 70 years following the death of the last co-author. In collective works, such as computer programs and audiovisual works, the property rights last 70 years following its first publication or, in the absence thereof, following its completion.
  • Registration of a copyright is not renewable. At the expiration of the term of protection, the work becomes part of the public domain.
  • Licenses may be registered following the same procedure as that for copyright registration.



Economic Freedom

  • 2006 Index of Economic Freedom
    • The Heritage Foundation/Wall Street Journal Index of Economic Freedom
    • Economic freedom is defined as the absence of government coercion or constraint on the production, distribution, or consumption of goods and services beyond the extent necessary for citizens to protect and maintain liberty itself. In other words, people are free to work, produce, consume, and invest in the ways they feel are most productive. The countries with the most economic freedom also have higher rates of long-term economic growth and are more prosperous than are those with less economic freedom.
    • The 2006 Index of Economic Freedom measures 161 countries against a list of 50 independent variables divided into 10 broad factors of economic freedom. Low scores are more desirable. The higher the score on a factor, the greater the level of government interference in the economy and the less economic freedom a country enjoys. These 50 variables are grouped into the following categories: Trade policy, Fiscal burden of government, Government intervention in the economy, Monetary policy, Capital flows and foreign investment, Banking and finance, Wages and prices, Property rights, Regulation, and Informal market activity.

Technology and Competitiveness

  • Networked Readiness Index (NRI)
    • The World Economic Forum's Networked Readiness Index (NRI) measures the propensity for countries to exploit the opportunities offered by information and communications technology. It is published annually. The NRI seeks to better comprehend the impact of ICT on the competitiveness of nations. The NRI is a composite of three components: the environment for ICT offered by a given country or community, the readiness of the community’s key stakeholders (individuals, businesses, and governments) to use ICT, and finally the usage of ICT amongst these stakeholders.
  • Information and Communication Technology Diffusion Index (ICTDI)
    • There is an immense information and communication technology (ICT) gap, a “digital divide”, between developed and developing countries. A person in a high-income country is over 22 times more likely to be an Internet user than someone in a low-income country. Secure Internet servers, a rough indicator of electronic commerce, are over 100 times more common in high-income than in low-income countries. In high-income countries, mobile phones are 29 times more prevalent and mainline penetration is 21 times that of low-income countries. Relative to income, the cost of Internet access in a low-income country is 150 times the cost of a comparable service in a high-income country. There are similar divides within individual countries. ICT is often non-existent in poor and rural areas of developing countries.
  • Global Software Piracy Study
    • Thirty-five percent of the packaged software installed on personal computers (PC) worldwide in 2005 was illegal, amounting to $34 billion in global losses due to software piracy. However, some improvements in a number of markets indicate education, enforcement and policy efforts are beginning to pay off in emerging economies such as China, Russia and India and in Central/Eastern Europe and the Middle East & Africa.


  • The Doing Business database provides objective measures of business regulations and their enforcement. The Doing Business indicators are comparable across 175 economies. They indicate the regulatory costs of business and can be used to analyze specific regulations that enhance or constrain investment, productivity, and growth.
  • The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research program is an annual assessment of the national level of entrepreneurial activity. Initiated in 1999 with 10 countries, expanded to 21 in the year 2000, with 29 countries in 2001 and 37 countries in 2002. GEM 2006 will conduct research in 39 countries.

Governance Indicators

  • This page presents the updated aggregate governance research indicators for 213 countries for 1996–2005, for six dimensions of governance: Voice and Accountability, Political Stability and Absence of Violence, Government Effectiveness, Regulatory Quality, Rule of Law, Control of Corruption. The website is provided by the World Bank.

Social Responsibility


  • Cientifica
    • Founded in 1997, Cientifica is the world's leading supplier of nanotechnology information, with activities spanning from basic research, through scientific networks to consultancy, business intelligence and investment appraisals. Cientifica is in constant contact with thousands of scientists, businesses and investors active in the nanotechnology world.
  • Nanotech Project
    • The Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies was established in April 2005 as a partnership between the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and the Pew Charitable Trusts. The Project is dedicated to helping ensure that as nanotechnologies advance, possible risks are minimized, public and consumer engagement remains strong, and the potential benefits of these new technologies are realized.


  • Open Business @ Peru Blog
    • Sharing Ideas About Small Tech Business.
    • Syndication XML RSS2.0
    • English/Spanish
  • CENTRUM al Dia
    • Business Bulletin.
    • Spanish
  • Responsables Biz
    • Corporate Social Responsibility
    • Spanish
  • Peru 2021
    • Corporate Social Responsibility
    • Spanish
  • Green Biz
    • A comprehensive free information resource for large and small companies seeking to align environmental business practices with business success.
    • English
    • The Biomimetics Network for Industrial Sustainability (BIONIS). BIONIS Mission Statement "To promote the application of Biomimetics in products and services and its use in education and training".
    • English
    • News, views and information about science, technology and the developing world.
    • English/Spanish
  • Hagamos Empresa
    • Peruvian Tv show about small business.
    • Spanish
    • The Agency for the Promotion of Private Investment is responsible for encouraging both local and foreign private investment, in order to foster competitiveness and sustainable development in Peru to improve the welfare of Peruvian people. PROINVERSION becomes strategic partner for the development of foreign and local private investments in Peru.
    • English/Spanish
  • InnoCentive
    • InnoCentive® is an exciting web-based community matching top scientists to relevant R&D challenges facing leading companies from around the globe. We provide a powerful online forum enabling major companies to reward scientific innovation through financial incentives.
    • English/Spanish
  • Make Magazine
    • MAKE is a quarterly publication from O'Reilly for those who just can't stop tinkering, disassembling, re-creating, and inventing cool new uses for the technology in our lives. It's the first do-it-yourself magazine dedicated to the incorrigible and chronically incurable technology enthusiast in all of us. MAKE celebrates your right to tweak, hack, and bend technology any way you want.
    • English
  • Photonics Spectra
    • Since 1967, Photonics Spectra magazine has defined the science industry of photonics, providing business news and technology solutions to readers in the optics, lasers, imaging, fiber optics, electro-optics and photonic component manufacturing.
    • English
  • RE-Focus
    • Refocus Magazine reports on all the latest developments in the renewable energy industry.
    • English

Business Case Studies

    • Dagesoft is a Company that develops Software, Information Systems and process automation provides security solutions, custom applications and Internet oriented system development.
    • DEUMAN is a consulting company in the field of energy, with a long term goal of becoming the leading company on energy issues in Latin America.
  • Libro Fondo de Iniciativas Empresariales FIE (2005) PROPOLI
    • Fondo de Iniciativas Empresariales – FIE. En su primera convocatoria, en 2004, el FIE financió la creación de 285 microempresas. En este libro se presentan los casos de 15 de los ganadores del FIE - 2004, como una muestra de la capacidad emprendedora y creativa de los peruanos para generar desarrollo en medio de las dificultades de la pobreza.
  • e-Casos - eWebPeru - CENTRUM PUCP - 2004.
    • César Ferradas Zegarra, MBA, MSc.
    • Casos: Gloria SA, Carrocerías Morillas SA, El Buen Sembrador, HH.RR.SIS, MuniCaja del Sur, La facturación perfecta, Demoliciones SA, Perú e-Business, e-Banca Cubana, LatinTel, BHP Billiton, Rating Bancario.
  • Experiencias MIPYME
    • Cuatro experiencias exitosas de empresarios MIPYME que hacen uso de la propiedad intelectual para posicionar y diferenciar sus productos y servicios en el mercado.
    • Indecopi - 2006 - Video Flash 9': 22
  • La Industria de las Tecnología de la Información y Comunicaciones CODESI - 2004
    • En el presente Informe se hace una evaluación de la situación actual, diagnóstico y análisis del desarrollo de la industria de las Tecnología de la Información y Comunicaciones -TIC’s- en el país; asimismo, del uso eficiente de éstas en la industria, el comercio y los servicios; también, del comercio electrónico; y, finalmente, del marco regulatorio.

Business Plans and Projects

Ceres: Prevention Disaster and Rapid Response Network

  • Date:2006
    • Abstract: Voice over IP (VoIP) is becoming increasingly used for disaster communications. An disaster prevention and rapid response network will be installed in the peri-urban zone in Lima, Perú. The network will be using an open source VoIP telephony system (Asterisk) to deal with and respond to natural disasters.
    • Awards: Best plan for FOSS deployment project on new server for community benefit. SFD 06 Competition sponsored by IBM.
    • In the News:

Open Mesh Technologies: Community Wireless Networks

  • Date: 2006
    • Abstract
    • Resumen: Open Mesh Technologies es un emprendimiento comercial que ofrece servicios tecnológicos de valor agregado: Instalación y diseño de redes inalámbricas comunitarias. Nuestros servicios están desarrollados en base al uso de tecnologías Open Source de software y hardware, y de estándares de comunicación abiertos. Nuestra oferta de servicios esta orientada a satisfacer la demanda de soluciones tecnológicas por parte de las redes comunitarias: Asociaciones de Padres de Familia, Juntas Vecinales, Asociaciones de Comerciantes, Consorcios de MYPEs, Organizaciones de Base, Comunidades Rurales, Organizaciones Religiosas, Asociaciones de Productores, Asentamientos Humanos. Existe poca información sobre este mercado debido a que generalmente no son considerados como consumidores. Pero existe una gran demanda por servicios tecnológicos en especial de tecnologías de información y comunicación (TICs). Para el caso del Perú el mercado de TICs es de $746.16 millones anuales. No tenemos una competencia directa, nuestro mercado objetivo no es atendido y considerado como invisible. Nuestra competencia es indirecta y esta conformada por otros proveedores de soluciones tecnológicas propietarias que se concentran en un mercado objetivo distinto al nuestro.
    • Awards : The Motorola Entrepreneurship Prize 2006 finalist. The winners will be announced on November 2006. Telefonica del Peru "Looking for an Idea", the project wins the national phase.
    • In the News: Project Wiki

Project: Open Inventions

  • Date: 2006
    • Abstract
    • Resumen:
    • Exhibitions: El Indecopi convoca desde 1996 a todos los peruanos a participar en el "Concurso de Invenciones Nacionales", con la finalidad de incentivar la creatividad y brindarles la oportunidad de dar a conocer sus inventos e intercambiar experiencias entre los participantes así como para abrir nuevas posibilidades de inversión nacional y extranjera a los adelantos tecnológicos.
    • Awards
    • In the News:

Project: Biomimetic Engineering

Small Business: Solidwaste Recycling

  • Date: 2002
    • Abstract:
    • Resumen: En los países del primer mundo la basura es un problema ambiental pero en la mayoría de los países del tercer mundo, es además un problema social. Podríamos decir que existe un circuito económico alrededor de la basura; por ejemplo, en Lima existe un gran número de pequeñas empresas informales que se dedican al reciclaje, comercialización y el procesamiento de todo tipo de desechos. Para esto, la mano de obra de la industria informal de basura está conformada por niños, mujeres y ancianos provenientes de las zonas marginales que viven en condiciones de extrema pobreza. Las actuales condiciones de trabajo en la industria de la basura son deplorables y miles de personas se ven expuestas a sufrir graves daños a su salud pues realizan el trabajo sin estar capacitados y sin contar con un mínimo equipo de protección. El resultado no es otro que el deterioro de la calidad de vida de un gran sector de la población y el aumento de los niveles de contaminación ambiental. Un adecuado procesamiento de los desechos disminuye considerablemente los efectos socio-ambientales producidos por el manejo informal de la basura. Existe una gran cantidad de soluciones eco-tecnológicas que pueden aplicarse, por ejemplo el uso de biodigestores para la producción de abono a partir de desechos orgánicos o el reciclaje de envases de PET para la producción de cemento polimérico. Para cada tipo de desecho existe una solución tecnológica que convierte a la basura en materia prima y además permite el desarrollo de productos con valor agregado. Aquí la tarea esta en manos de las instituciones académicas y universidades que deben ofrecer soluciones tecnológicas adecuadas a las condiciones existentes en el país. La solución es clara: transformar a la industria informal de la basura en una industria formal tecnificada y generadora de productos con valor agregado. De esta manera esencialmente lograremos mejorar la calidad de vida de un gran numero de personas que viven de la basura y contribuir a la disminución de la contaminación ambiental.
    • Awards: -
    • In the News: Report GEO Juvenil Perú 2002

Small Business: New Materials and Plastic Recycling

  • Date: 2001
    • Abstract:
    • Resumen: El proyecto consiste en promover la formación de pequeñas empresas tecnológicas dedicadas a la fabricación de adoquines y bloques prefabricados reforzados con materiales plásticos reciclados. Estas pequeñas empresas utilizarán una nueva tecnología de fabricación de materiales prefabricados que es eco-eficiente y resultado de 3 años de investigación universitaria. Las actividades principales del proyecto son la construcción de una planta piloto semi-industrial y la capacitación en eco-eficiencia de un grupo de empresas clandestinas dedicadas al reciclaje informal de materiales plásticos en los distritos de San Martín de Porres, El Rímac, Vitarte y Villa El Salvador. El efecto negativo en el medio ambiente se minimiza debido a un adecuado manejo y reciclaje de los residuos, además porque la tecnología desarrollada no produce residuos ni emisiones contaminantes.
    • Awards: The Coca Cola Eco-Efficiency Prize 2001. Coca Cola del Peru and GRUPO-PUCP
    • In the News: Prize Brochure, Prize Winners Announcement, El Comercio Online 2001

Biodegradable Detergent

  • Date: 2000
    • Abstract:
    • Resumen: Se propone como alternativa de solución a la contaminación de las aguas por causa de los detergentes con alto contenido de fósforo; el empleo de un detergente hecho a base de Sapindus saponaria que se caracteriza por ser biodegradable no contaminando las aguas marítimas y el reciclaje de los residuos de este proceso. Se obtiene un material granulado que puede sustituir al cemento, obteniéndose un producto más liviano y de resistencia semejante a la mezcla sin el aditivo. El ciclo productivo no deja residuos y el rendimiento respecto al detergente es del 20% y respecto al material de construcción es del 80%. Entre las propiedades del detergente se puede mencionar que enjabona y forma espuma con agua fría, contiene un suavizante natural y para lograr el efecto de limpieza se requieren de pequeñas cantidades (5% del volumen total).Este detergente se utiliza en el lavado de ropa y vajilla. Respecto al ahorro de materiales y energía se logra la minimización de residuos por medio del aprovechamiento integral de la materia prima y el reciclamiento y utilización de residuos.
    • Awards: The Coca Cola Eco-Efficiency Prize 2003. Coca Cola del Peru, GRUPO-PUCP, Foro Ciudades para la Vida. The Coca Cola Eco-Efficiency Prize 2000. Coca Cola del Peru and GRUPO-PUCP.
    • In the News: Expreso - November 2000, Prize Winners Announcement, El Peruano 2003